Negative Impacts of Air Pollution on a Country’s Economy

The news of the worsening air quality in big cities worldwide, including Jakarta, has been going around for weeks. Although each city has a different percentage of pollution severity, the adverse impact remains the same.

The similarity is also in the pollutants of the cities; all bring harmful effects to health.

Some pollutants generally contain heavy metals, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). It can trigger respiratory disorders, such as asthma, upper respiratory infection, and lung cancer.

Air pollution exposure can also trigger cardiovascular diseases. The high carbon monoxide (CO) level can increase inflammation protein levels and blood viscosity, further triggering the inflammation of blood vessels.

Because of that, air pollution exposure is also very dangerous for pregnant women. Inflammation can trigger premature birth, miscarriage, and the possibility for the baby to suffer from asthma or autism.

See also: The Positive Impacts of the Upcoming Jakarta-Bandung High Speed Train

WHO data indicates that about 6.7 million premature deaths happen each year and all of them are caused by air pollution.

That is just the tip of the iceberg since air pollution also negatively impacts the environment. The earth’s temperature is now increasing, resulting in the melting of ice in cold climate regions.

It causes ice-covered lands, the home for particular plants and animals, to submerge into the ocean.

Air Pollution Does Not Only Negatively Affect Health

Coordinating Ministry for Maritime & Investment Affairs, Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, recently said that air pollution from fine particulate (PM2.5) is one of the main causes of diseases that must be addressed by National Health Insurance (JKN). The government of Indonesia must allocate an IDR 10 trillion budget for JKN.

Meanwhile, research from Greenpeace Asia in 2020 and IQAir in 2023 indicates that air pollution in Jabodetabek will cause the country to lose IDR 20-30 trillion. Those numbers are accumulated from healthcare and environmental improvement programs.

See also: Government Measures to Improve Transportation and Logistics on Java Island

Thus, several parties encouraged the government to plan for resolving air pollution prevention immediatelyby prompting them to improve and enforce disciplinary actions regarding air pollutant sources.

Research from multiple institutions, including the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) and experts from Institut Teknologi Bandung, find that transportation contributes to the largest portion of air pollution by 44 percent.

It is followed by the energy industries or power stations by 31 percent, housing by 14 percent, manufacturing industries by 10 percent, and commercial businesses by 1 percent.

Transportation is reported to contribute up to 96.36 percent of carbon monoxide or 28,317 tonnes/year,power generation contributes 1.76 percent or 5,252 tonnes/year, and the manufacturing industry contributes 1.25 percent or 3,738 tonnes/year.

See also: Employee Shuttle Buses for Clean Air Solution

Data from the Jakarta Central Statistics Agency (BPS) reveals that by the end of June 2023, there were a total of 23.03 million units of vehicle. Among those, 18.33 million units, or 79.6 percent, are motorcycles. Passenger cars account for 3.8 million units, while cargo trucks and special vehicles total 796,207 and 60,153 units, respectively.

Shuttle Bus as a Solution to Combat Air Pollution

Those numbers are continuously increasing as vehicles are passing by the city daily. Therefore, the most suitable solution for this issue is encouraging people to use public transport or shuttle buses.

Note that the chosen employee shuttle buses must also be in excellent condition. Besides following emissions limits, they should also ensure passengers' comfort, safety, and cleanliness.

When it comes to bus rental companies meeting these criteria, TRAC is the solution. TRAC is a business line of PT Serasi Autoraya, a subsidiary of Astra Group, that engages in rental services for various types of buses, including a shuttle bus for employees. They range from Small, Medium, to Big Buses.

All of TRAC rental buses are regularly maintained to ensure that they are safe, convenient, and in the best condition. TRAC’s fleets have also passed the vehicle emission test.

To learn more about SERA’s profile and its services, including TRAC, visit its official website at